[舌尖上的瑞典]瑞典

来源:职场知识 发布时间:2019-09-25 05:02:51 点击:

  在恬静的北欧小国瑞典,人们尽情享受自然馈赠的美食。瑞典沿海的地理条件孕育了鲜美的鱼和虾,漫长而寒冷的冬季让丰富的食材得以保存。无论是美味难挡的脆面包片,还是自助餐主料腌鲱鱼,抑或是人人青睐的甜食,都显示了瑞典人独特的美食口味。
  It’s safe to say Sweden’s food culture is much more than iconic meatballs and chewy fish-shaped candy. Here are eight things you should know about food traditions essential to Swedes’ everyday dining.
  Lingonberry1) sauce—Sweden’s favorite sauce
  Just like ketchup and mustard, lingonberry sauce is widely used to accompany a variety of dishes, from meatballs and pancakes to porridge and blood pudding. But despite its sweetness, it is rarely used on bread. Thanks to the Right of Public Access (Allemansr?tten), which gives everyone the freedom to roam and enjoy nature, many Swedes grow up picking lingonberries in the forest and using these tiny tart red fruits to make the jam-like preserve2).
  Pickled3) herring4)—center of the smorgasbord5)
  You might swap out6) meatballs (k?ttbullar) for mini sausages (prinskorv) or pick cured salmon (gravad lax) rather than smoked, but your smorgasbord wouldn’t be complete without pickled herring (sill). For this fishy favorite remains the basis of every typical Swedish buffet. With an abundance of herring in both the North and Baltic Seas, Swedes have been pickling since the middle ages, mainly as a way of preserving the fish for storage and transportation. Pickled herring comes in a variety of flavors—mustard, onion, garlic and dill7), to name a few—and is often eaten with boiled potatoes, sour cream, chopped chives, hard sharp cheese, sometimes boiled eggs, and of course, crisp bread.
  Crisp bread—hard to beat
  In addition to bread and butter, you’ll often find a type of crisp bread called kn?ckebr?d served alongside your main meal. This is what the Swedes tend to reach for. Once considered poor man’s food, crisp bread has been baked in Sweden for over 500 years, can last for at least a year if stored properly and remains among the most versatile edible products. The National Board of Health and Welfare ran a campaign in the 1970s suggesting Swedes should eat six to eight slices of bread a day, including crisp bread. This comes in various shapes, thicknesses and flavors, with entire store shelves devoted to it. Crisp bread can be topped with anything from sliced boiled eggs and caviar8) squeezed from a tube for breakfast; to ham, cheese and cucumber slices for lunch; to just plain butter along with your dinner.
  Open sandwiches—very special
  When you order a sandwich, don’t be surprised if it involves just a single slice of bread. The concept of open sandwiches dates back to the 15th century when thick slabs of bread were used as plates. In Sweden, the shrimp9) sandwich (r?ksm?rg?s) remains the option fit for a king. Piled high with a mix of boiled egg slices, lettuce10), tomato and cucumber, this seafood snack is often topped with creamy roms?s—crème fra?che blended with dill sprigs and roe. Shrimp sandwiches are such an integral part of Swedish culture, they have inspired a popular saying: “glida in p? en r?kmacka” (literally “glide in on a shrimp sandwich,” but corresponding to the expression “a piece of cake”), meaning a task or activity was easy to accomplish or effortless.   Pea soup and pancakes—Thursday’s traditional food
  Many Swedes grow up eating pea soup and pancakes (?rtsoppa och pannkakor) on Thursdays. While its true origins are widely debated—from Catholics not eating meat on Fridays, thus filling up on pea soup on Thursdays, to pea soup being very easy to prepare by maidservants who would work half-days on Thursdays—the tradition has well stuck. Most traditional lunch restaurants serve pea soup and pancakes with lingonberry sauce or any kind of jam on Thursdays.
  Prinsesst?rta—a royal indulgence11)
  Coloring the window displays of bakeries throughout Sweden is the all-time favorite neon-green princess cake (prinsesst?rta), topped with a bright pink sugar rose. Comprising layers of yellow sponge12) lined with jam and vanilla custard, and then finished off with a heavy topping of whipped cream, the cake is carefully sealed within a thin layer of sugary sweet green marzipan13). A relatively recent addition to Sweden’s culinary history, prinsesst?rta debuted in the 1920s courtesy of14) Jenny ?kerstr?m, teacher to King Gustav V15)’s brother Prince Carl Bernadotte’s daughters—Princesses Margaretha, M?rtha and Astrid—who loved it so much; they inspired its name. While the third week of September is officially prinsesst?rta week, this popular cake is now eaten during special festivals and is used to mark many milestones in people’s lives. Today, it comes in a variety of colors—from the classic neon green to yellow for Easter, red at Christmas, orange for Halloween, pink and blue for baptism parties and white for weddings.
  Special days for sugary delights
  In Sweden, people can always find a good excuse to tuck into something sweet—so much so that specific calendar days are designated to the celebration of particular sugary specialties. Cinnamon16) Roll Day (Kanelbullens dag) is celebrated on October 4. Buns filled with cream and almond paste known as semlor are eaten on Shrove Tuesday—the day before Ash Wednesday17). Waffles (v?fflor) are consumed on March 25, and creamy sponge cakes decorated with chocolate or marzipan silhouettes18) of King Gustav Adolf19) (Gustav Adolfs-bakelse) on November 6 in memory of the Swedish monarch who was killed on this day in 1632 at the Battle of Lützen20).
  Crazy for crawfish
  Crawfish parties (kr?ftskivor) are popular in August, when warm summer evenings are spent feasting on21) these red bite-sized fresh-water crustaceans22) in gardens and on balconies all over Sweden. Eaten only by Sweden’s upper-class citizens and aristocracy in the 16th century, crawfish have become a national delicacy enjoyed by all, with mass importation having significantly brought down the price over the centuries.   可以不过分地说,瑞典的饮食文化远远不止被奉为经典的肉丸和有嚼劲的鱼形糖果。要了解与瑞典人的日常饮食密不可分的饮食传统,你得知道以下八样东西。
  越橘酱——瑞典人钟爱的调味酱
  与番茄酱、芥末酱一样,越橘酱作为佐餐配料被广泛地用于各种菜肴,包括小肉丸、煎饼、肉汤和血布丁。虽然越橘酱甜津津的,但它却很少用作面包酱。由于《自由行走权》法案赋予每个人自由漫步、享受自然的权利,许多瑞典人从小就在林中摘越橘,把这些带酸味的小红果子做成果酱一样的蜜饯。
  腌鲱鱼——瑞典自助餐的主料
  吃自助餐时,你也许会把小肉丸换成小香肠,或者是选择腌制三文鱼而非烟熏三文鱼。但若是缺了腌鲱鱼,你的自助餐就显得不完整了。因为只要是典型的瑞典自助餐,这道深受人们喜爱的鱼类菜肴就必不可少。北海和波罗的海盛产鲱鱼,自中世纪以来瑞典人就在腌制鲱鱼,主要是为了将鲱鱼保存更久用以储存和运输。腌鲱鱼的口味众多,有芥末味的、洋葱味的、大蒜味的、茴香味的——这里只是列了其中的几种。腌鲱鱼通常搭配煮土豆、酸奶油、韭菜末、酸的干奶酪食用,有时还搭配煮鸡蛋吃,当然还可以和脆面包片一起吃。
  脆面包片——美味难挡
  主餐中除了面包和黄油,你还会经常看到一种脆面包片,叫做kn?ckebr?d,瑞典人常爱拿来吃。脆面包片在过去被看做是穷人的食物,在瑞典已有五百多年的历史。要是保存得当,脆面包片至少能存放一年之久,而且至今仍是吃法最为多样的食品之一。国家健康和福利委员会在20世纪70年代开展了一项运动,呼吁瑞典人应该每天吃上6~8片面包,包括脆面包片。脆面包片形状不一,有薄有厚,口味多样,种类多到可以放满商店里整排的货架。脆面包片上什么都能放:可以放上煮鸡蛋片和细管挤出的鱼子酱,用作早餐;也可以配上火腿、奶酪和黄瓜条,用作午餐;还可以涂上黄油,连同晚餐一起吃。
  单片三明治——与众不同
  当你点了一份三明治,却发现只有一片面包时,可不要为此惊讶。单片三明治的想法可以追溯到15世纪,那时候人们把厚面包片用作餐盘。在瑞典,虾肉三明治一直是适合国王享用的美味。这道海鲜小吃里有煮鸡蛋片、生菜、西红柿和黄瓜,堆得高高的,顶上还有奶油酱——由奶油混以小茴香和鱼子制成。虾肉三明治是瑞典文化不可或缺的一部分,它们甚至催生了一句流行的谚语:“glida in p? en r?kmacka”(字面意思是“在虾肉三明治上滑行”,但实际意思相当于“小菜一碟”),指不费吹灰之力就能完成的任务或活动。
  豌豆汤和薄煎饼——周四的传统美食
  许多瑞典人从小就在周四喝豌豆汤,吃薄煎饼。关于这一传统的起源众说纷纭:有人说是因为天主教徒周五不吃肉,所以周四就狠命喝豌豆汤;也有人说是女仆周四只干半天活,而豌豆汤做起来非常容易。不管起源如何,这项传统一直很好地延续了下来。大多数传统的午餐厅在周四都会供应豌豆汤和薄煎饼,佐以越橘酱或其他酱料。
  公主蛋糕——皇家之宠
  为瑞典面包房的橱窗带来缤纷色彩的是一直备受人们喜爱的霓虹绿公主蛋糕,蛋糕上还点缀着一朵亮粉色的糖玫瑰。一层层的黄色海绵蛋糕中间夹上果酱和香草蛋奶,然后最上面涂一层厚厚的鲜奶油,最后整个蛋糕被仔细地裹上一层薄薄的绿色杏仁蛋白糖霜。在瑞典的饮食历史中,公主蛋糕算是近代的新宠。承蒙詹妮·阿克斯通的好意提供,这款蛋糕于20世纪20年代首次亮相。詹妮·阿克斯通是国王古斯塔夫五世的弟弟卡尔·伯纳多的女儿们的老师。卡尔·伯纳多的女儿们——马格莎公主、玛莎公主和艾斯特德公主——都非常喜爱这款蛋糕,“公主蛋糕”这一名称就是受此启发而诞生。九月的第三个星期是官方规定的公主蛋糕周,但现在人们享用这款受欢迎的蛋糕是在特殊的节日里,以及纪念生活中许多重要的时刻时。如今的公主蛋糕有各种各样的颜色,除了经典的霓虹绿外,还有复活节的黄色、圣诞节的红色、万圣节的橙色、洗礼上的粉色和蓝色以及婚礼上的白色。
  甜品盛宴的专门节日
  在瑞典,人们总是能找到好借口来享用甜食,爱甜食爱到日历上有些日子是专门用来吃某种特别的甜品的。10月4日是肉桂卷日;忏悔星期二(也就是圣灰节的前一天)吃奶油杏仁馅的小面包;3月25日吃华夫饼;11月6日吃奶油海绵蛋糕,蛋糕上还装饰着巧克力或奶油杏仁糖霜做成的古斯塔夫·阿道夫国王的头像,用以纪念这位于1632年11月6日在吕岑会战中阵亡的瑞典君主。
  疯狂爱上小龙虾
  小龙虾派对在8月里很盛行。温热的夏日夜晚,在瑞典各地的花园里、阳台上,人们尽情享受着这些一口便能吃下一个的红色淡水甲壳生物。16世纪时,小龙虾是瑞典上层人士和贵族的专享美食。而如今,它已成为全国上下人人都能享用的美味。几百年来,人们大规模进口小龙虾,这大大降低了它的价格。
  1. lingonberry [?li?ɡ?n?b?ri] n. [植]越橘
  2. preserve [pr??z??(r)v] n. 蜜饯,果酱
  3. pickled [?p?k(?)ld] adj. 腌渍的;腌制的
  4. herring [?her??] n. [鱼]鲱鱼
  5. smorgasbord [sm??(r)ɡ?s?b??(r)d] n. 瑞典式自助餐
  6. swap out:换出,交换
  7. dill [dil] n. [植]小茴香
  8. caviar [?k?vi?ɑ?(r)] n. 鱼子酱
  9. shrimp [?rimp] n. 虾,小虾
  10. lettuce [?let?s] n. 生菜
  11. indulgence [?n?d?ld?(?)ns] n. 嗜好,溺爱
  12. sponge [sp?nd?] n. 海绵蛋糕,松软布丁   13. marzipan [?mɑ?(r)z??p?n] n. 杏仁蛋白糖霜
  14. courtesy of:蒙……的好意(或准许);蒙……提供(或赠送)
  15. Gustav V:古斯塔夫五世(1858~1950),原名奥斯卡·古斯塔夫·阿道夫(Oscar Gustaf Adolf),自1907年担任瑞典国王,也是贝尔纳多特王朝第五任国王。
  16. cinnamon [?sin?m?n] n. [植]肉桂
  17. Ash Wednesday:圣灰节,复活节前的第七个星期三
  18. silhouette [?s?lu?et] n. 黑色半面画像;侧面影像
  19. Gustav Adolf:即古斯塔夫二世·阿道夫(Gustav II Adolf, 1594~1634),瑞典国王、统帅,军事改革家,被视为瑞典历史上最杰出的国王。
  20. Battle of Lützen:吕岑会战,三十年战争中的一场战役,发生于1632年。三十年战争是由罗马帝国内战演变而成的全欧洲参与的一次大规模国际战争,是欧洲各国争夺利益、树立霸权以及宗教纠纷加剧化的结果。
  21. feast on:尽情享受,大吃大喝
  22. crustacean [kr??ste???n] n. [动]甲壳类动物
  23. aristocracy [??r??st?kr?si] n. 贵族
  Pea Soup Recipe (豌豆汤做法)
  Ingredients (原料)
  ① 1 tablespoon butter; ② 1 medium onion, chopped; ③ 1 stalk celery, chopped; ④ 2 cloves garlic, chopped; ⑤ 1 teaspoon chopped fresh thyme or parsley; ⑥ 6 cups peas, fresh or frozen; ⑦ 1/2 cup water; ⑧ 4 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth, “no-chicken” broth or vegetable broth; ⑨ 1/2 cup half-and-half (一半牛奶和一半淡奶油) (optional); ⑩ 1/2 teaspoon salt
  Directions (步骤)
  ① Heat butter and oil in a Dutch oven over medium heat until the butter melts. Add onion and celery; cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, 4 to 6 minutes. Add garlic and thyme (百里香) (or parsley); cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 10 seconds.
  ② Stir in peas. Add water and broth; bring to a lively simmer over high heat. Reduce heat to maintain a lively simmer and cook until very tender, about 1 minute.
  ③ Puree (煮成浓汤) the soup in batches in a blender until smooth. Stir in half-and-half (if using), salt and pepper.

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