来源:职场知识 发布时间:2019-09-25 05:02:51 点击:

  It’s safe to say Sweden’s food culture is much more than iconic meatballs and chewy fish-shaped candy. Here are eight things you should know about food traditions essential to Swedes’ everyday dining.
  Lingonberry1) sauce—Sweden’s favorite sauce
  Just like ketchup and mustard, lingonberry sauce is widely used to accompany a variety of dishes, from meatballs and pancakes to porridge and blood pudding. But despite its sweetness, it is rarely used on bread. Thanks to the Right of Public Access (Allemansr?tten), which gives everyone the freedom to roam and enjoy nature, many Swedes grow up picking lingonberries in the forest and using these tiny tart red fruits to make the jam-like preserve2).
  Pickled3) herring4)—center of the smorgasbord5)
  You might swap out6) meatballs (k?ttbullar) for mini sausages (prinskorv) or pick cured salmon (gravad lax) rather than smoked, but your smorgasbord wouldn’t be complete without pickled herring (sill). For this fishy favorite remains the basis of every typical Swedish buffet. With an abundance of herring in both the North and Baltic Seas, Swedes have been pickling since the middle ages, mainly as a way of preserving the fish for storage and transportation. Pickled herring comes in a variety of flavors—mustard, onion, garlic and dill7), to name a few—and is often eaten with boiled potatoes, sour cream, chopped chives, hard sharp cheese, sometimes boiled eggs, and of course, crisp bread.
  Crisp bread—hard to beat
  In addition to bread and butter, you’ll often find a type of crisp bread called kn?ckebr?d served alongside your main meal. This is what the Swedes tend to reach for. Once considered poor man’s food, crisp bread has been baked in Sweden for over 500 years, can last for at least a year if stored properly and remains among the most versatile edible products. The National Board of Health and Welfare ran a campaign in the 1970s suggesting Swedes should eat six to eight slices of bread a day, including crisp bread. This comes in various shapes, thicknesses and flavors, with entire store shelves devoted to it. Crisp bread can be topped with anything from sliced boiled eggs and caviar8) squeezed from a tube for breakfast; to ham, cheese and cucumber slices for lunch; to just plain butter along with your dinner.
  Open sandwiches—very special
  When you order a sandwich, don’t be surprised if it involves just a single slice of bread. The concept of open sandwiches dates back to the 15th century when thick slabs of bread were used as plates. In Sweden, the shrimp9) sandwich (r?ksm?rg?s) remains the option fit for a king. Piled high with a mix of boiled egg slices, lettuce10), tomato and cucumber, this seafood snack is often topped with creamy roms?s—crème fra?che blended with dill sprigs and roe. Shrimp sandwiches are such an integral part of Swedish culture, they have inspired a popular saying: “glida in p? en r?kmacka” (literally “glide in on a shrimp sandwich,” but corresponding to the expression “a piece of cake”), meaning a task or activity was easy to accomplish or effortless.   Pea soup and pancakes—Thursday’s traditional food
  Many Swedes grow up eating pea soup and pancakes (?rtsoppa och pannkakor) on Thursdays. While its true origins are widely debated—from Catholics not eating meat on Fridays, thus filling up on pea soup on Thursdays, to pea soup being very easy to prepare by maidservants who would work half-days on Thursdays—the tradition has well stuck. Most traditional lunch restaurants serve pea soup and pancakes with lingonberry sauce or any kind of jam on Thursdays.
  Prinsesst?rta—a royal indulgence11)
  Coloring the window displays of bakeries throughout Sweden is the all-time favorite neon-green princess cake (prinsesst?rta), topped with a bright pink sugar rose. Comprising layers of yellow sponge12) lined with jam and vanilla custard, and then finished off with a heavy topping of whipped cream, the cake is carefully sealed within a thin layer of sugary sweet green marzipan13). A relatively recent addition to Sweden’s culinary history, prinsesst?rta debuted in the 1920s courtesy of14) Jenny ?kerstr?m, teacher to King Gustav V15)’s brother Prince Carl Bernadotte’s daughters—Princesses Margaretha, M?rtha and Astrid—who loved it so much; they inspired its name. While the third week of September is officially prinsesst?rta week, this popular cake is now eaten during special festivals and is used to mark many milestones in people’s lives. Today, it comes in a variety of colors—from the classic neon green to yellow for Easter, red at Christmas, orange for Halloween, pink and blue for baptism parties and white for weddings.
  Special days for sugary delights
  In Sweden, people can always find a good excuse to tuck into something sweet—so much so that specific calendar days are designated to the celebration of particular sugary specialties. Cinnamon16) Roll Day (Kanelbullens dag) is celebrated on October 4. Buns filled with cream and almond paste known as semlor are eaten on Shrove Tuesday—the day before Ash Wednesday17). Waffles (v?fflor) are consumed on March 25, and creamy sponge cakes decorated with chocolate or marzipan silhouettes18) of King Gustav Adolf19) (Gustav Adolfs-bakelse) on November 6 in memory of the Swedish monarch who was killed on this day in 1632 at the Battle of Lützen20).
  Crazy for crawfish
  Crawfish parties (kr?ftskivor) are popular in August, when warm summer evenings are spent feasting on21) these red bite-sized fresh-water crustaceans22) in gardens and on balconies all over Sweden. Eaten only by Sweden’s upper-class citizens and aristocracy in the 16th century, crawfish have become a national delicacy enjoyed by all, with mass importation having significantly brought down the price over the centuries.   可以不过分地说,瑞典的饮食文化远远不止被奉为经典的肉丸和有嚼劲的鱼形糖果。要了解与瑞典人的日常饮食密不可分的饮食传统,你得知道以下八样东西。
  当你点了一份三明治,却发现只有一片面包时,可不要为此惊讶。单片三明治的想法可以追溯到15世纪,那时候人们把厚面包片用作餐盘。在瑞典,虾肉三明治一直是适合国王享用的美味。这道海鲜小吃里有煮鸡蛋片、生菜、西红柿和黄瓜,堆得高高的,顶上还有奶油酱——由奶油混以小茴香和鱼子制成。虾肉三明治是瑞典文化不可或缺的一部分,它们甚至催生了一句流行的谚语:“glida in p? en r?kmacka”(字面意思是“在虾肉三明治上滑行”,但实际意思相当于“小菜一碟”),指不费吹灰之力就能完成的任务或活动。
  1. lingonberry [?li?ɡ?n?b?ri] n. [植]越橘
  2. preserve [pr??z??(r)v] n. 蜜饯,果酱
  3. pickled [?p?k(?)ld] adj. 腌渍的;腌制的
  4. herring [?her??] n. [鱼]鲱鱼
  5. smorgasbord [sm??(r)ɡ?s?b??(r)d] n. 瑞典式自助餐
  6. swap out:换出,交换
  7. dill [dil] n. [植]小茴香
  8. caviar [?k?vi?ɑ?(r)] n. 鱼子酱
  9. shrimp [?rimp] n. 虾,小虾
  10. lettuce [?let?s] n. 生菜
  11. indulgence [?n?d?ld?(?)ns] n. 嗜好,溺爱
  12. sponge [sp?nd?] n. 海绵蛋糕,松软布丁   13. marzipan [?mɑ?(r)z??p?n] n. 杏仁蛋白糖霜
  14. courtesy of:蒙……的好意(或准许);蒙……提供(或赠送)
  15. Gustav V:古斯塔夫五世(1858~1950),原名奥斯卡·古斯塔夫·阿道夫(Oscar Gustaf Adolf),自1907年担任瑞典国王,也是贝尔纳多特王朝第五任国王。
  16. cinnamon [?sin?m?n] n. [植]肉桂
  17. Ash Wednesday:圣灰节,复活节前的第七个星期三
  18. silhouette [?s?lu?et] n. 黑色半面画像;侧面影像
  19. Gustav Adolf:即古斯塔夫二世·阿道夫(Gustav II Adolf, 1594~1634),瑞典国王、统帅,军事改革家,被视为瑞典历史上最杰出的国王。
  20. Battle of Lützen:吕岑会战,三十年战争中的一场战役,发生于1632年。三十年战争是由罗马帝国内战演变而成的全欧洲参与的一次大规模国际战争,是欧洲各国争夺利益、树立霸权以及宗教纠纷加剧化的结果。
  21. feast on:尽情享受,大吃大喝
  22. crustacean [kr??ste???n] n. [动]甲壳类动物
  23. aristocracy [??r??st?kr?si] n. 贵族
  Pea Soup Recipe (豌豆汤做法)
  Ingredients (原料)
  ① 1 tablespoon butter; ② 1 medium onion, chopped; ③ 1 stalk celery, chopped; ④ 2 cloves garlic, chopped; ⑤ 1 teaspoon chopped fresh thyme or parsley; ⑥ 6 cups peas, fresh or frozen; ⑦ 1/2 cup water; ⑧ 4 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth, “no-chicken” broth or vegetable broth; ⑨ 1/2 cup half-and-half (一半牛奶和一半淡奶油) (optional); ⑩ 1/2 teaspoon salt
  Directions (步骤)
  ① Heat butter and oil in a Dutch oven over medium heat until the butter melts. Add onion and celery; cook, stirring occasionally, until softened, 4 to 6 minutes. Add garlic and thyme (百里香) (or parsley); cook, stirring, until fragrant, about 10 seconds.
  ② Stir in peas. Add water and broth; bring to a lively simmer over high heat. Reduce heat to maintain a lively simmer and cook until very tender, about 1 minute.
  ③ Puree (煮成浓汤) the soup in batches in a blender until smooth. Stir in half-and-half (if using), salt and pepper.

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